The Double by Fyodor Dostoevsky

What makes Goliadkin, protagonist of Fyodor Dostoevsky’s The Double, such a fascinating protagonist is the way it is left murkily ambiguous whether he is as awful as the rest of the characters perceive him. We are given evidence of him being a hypocritical snob in the endless social facades he crafts, but the novella opens with his complete and devastating ostracization already well in progress (the opening set piece involves him being rejected from the daughter of his former guardian’s birthday party)

Over the course of the novella Goliadkin becomes such an abject figure of pity as his isolation is compounded by his double’s universal acceptance. It is impossible to imagine the actions he could have committed to justify the endless stream of indignities he suffers.

The story creates the impression that Goliadkin is an anti-hero of the same type as Crime and Punishment‘s Raskolnikov, but Goliadkin is ultimately too cowardly and consumed by social etiquette to be able to embrace his baser instincts in the way of Raskolnikov. And it is this fatal humanity that makes his downfall so deeply tragic in spite of his manipulative nature.